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#Oxbridge #Biology #NatSci – Recommended Reading

It’s not too late! Here are some top recommendations for fun and study:

  • B. Alberts et al (2008) 5th Edition, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Garland
  • J.M. Berg (2006) 6th Edition, Biochemistry, Freeman
  • A.J.F. Griffith et al (2004) 8th Edition An introduction to Genetic Analysis, Freeman

Physiology of Organisms

  • King, J, Reaching for the sun, C.U.P.
  • Widmaier, EP, Why Geese don’t get obese (and we do), W. H. Freeman
  • McGowan, C, Diatoms to Dinosaurs, The size and scale of living things, Penguin
  • Walker, D, Energy, Plants and Man, Oxigraphics.

And a few more, courtesy of a generous American college:

Sex Sleep Eat Drink Dream: A Day in the Life of Your Body.  2007.  Jennifer Ackerman.  The author explains the findings of recent research on how daily rhythms affect the way our body works.  Why are some people early risers and others are night owls?  How does this change with age?  What is the best time of day to learn and remember?  What has science learned about the interactions of time of day and sex, sleep, eating, drinking, and dreaming?

A Naturalist and Other Beasts: Tales from a Life in the Field.  2007.  George B. Schaller.  George Schaller has had a long and important career as a field biologist and conservationist.  In this book, he shares his stories about his work to understand the biology and conservation of animals across the world.  He may be best known for his work with gorillas and lions in Africa, but he also tells of his work with caribou in the arctic, tigers and pandas in Asia and many others.

Why Beautiful People Have More Daughters: From Dating, Shopping, and Praying to Going to War and Becoming a Billionaire– Two Evolutionary Psychologists Explain Why We Do What We Do.  2007.  Alan S. Miller and Satoshi Kanazawa.  This book differs from my usual choices because the authors are psychologists, not biologists.  Their topic is about what we have learned from recent research that uses the biological principles of evolution to explain human psychology.  Before jumping into this book to find the answer to questions like “Why are almost all violent criminals men?” and “Why are diamonds a girl’s best friend?” DO NOT skip the introduction.  In the introduction and throughout the book, the authors remind us to be aware of two important mistakes in thinking.  Read the introduction to see what they have to say about the “Moralistic Fallacy” and the “Naturalistic Fallacy.”  Then, take the authors’ invitation to jump around and read the sections of the book that interest you in any order.

Condor:  To the Brink and Back- The Life and Times of One Giant Bird.  2006.  John Nielsen.  The California Condor has been the focus of expensive and controversial efforts to prevent it’s extinction.  Is this bird worth it?  What are the causes of it’s population decline?  Who has worked to preserve this species, and what have they done?  These are the questions that Nielsen addresses.  By the end of the book, the reader should learn important lessons that may be applied to similar efforts for other endangered species.

Twilight of the Mammoths: Ice Age Extinctions and the Rewilding of America.  2005.  Paul S. Martin.  When did humans arrive to North America?  How did they interact with Mammoths, American Lions, Giant Sloths, Camels and other “Megafauna?”  What caused the extinction of this megafauna?  In this book, Martin evaluates three competing hypotheses:  “overkill, overchill and over-ill.”  Perhaps most controversially, Martin discusses the proposal to “rewild” North America by returning megafauna to the ecosystem.

Why Do Men have Nipples, Hundreds of Questions You’d Only Ask a Doctor After Your Third Martini.  2005.  Mark Leyner and Billy Goldberg, M.D.  Well, the title says it all for this one.  The authors give scientific answers, when available, to many biological questions.  Topics range from digestion, to body parts, to sex, drugs and the accuracy of medicine in the movies.  This book is aimed for a popular audience and uses a lot of humor, references to alcohol and sex and a bit of vulgar language.  I decided that it was still a worthwhile read, with one caveat.  The authors frequently refer to a scientific paper in medical and scientific journals, but this book contains no bibliography.  So, if you choose to read this book, there is one additional requirement for your review.  Find and read one original scientific article referred to in the book (I can help.)  Compare the results of this article to the author’s response in your review.

The Earth Moved:  On the remarkable achievements of Earthworms.  2004.  Amy Stewart.  Each year, I try to choose a book that praises the virtues of some of the world’s least sexy critters.  Stewart does a great job of showcasing the work of those rare worm biologists that have helped us to marvel at the powers of the lowly earthworm.  You may never look at a fishing worm in the same way.

Pandora’s Baby:  How the first test tube babies sparked the reproductive revolution.  2004.  Robin Marantz Henig.  Did you know that the first human case of artificial insemination occurred in 1884?  What was the reaction to the first “test-tube baby” born in 1978 in Great Britain?  In this book, the author traces the history of reproductive technologies and the ethical debates that have surrounded them.  She relates these to the present debates over stem-cell research and human cloning.

The Red Queen : Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature.  2003.  Matt Ridley.  Sex is not necessary for reproduction in many organisms.  Not all organisms that reproduce sexually have males and females.  This book is about the evolution of sex and the evolution of traits in sexually reproducing species.  Ridley examines what we have learned about the evolution of sex in other species and considers how this may have shaped our own evolution.

Nature Via Nurture:  Genes, Experience and What Makes Us Human.  2003.  Matt Ridley.  In this book, Ridley relates our emerging understanding of the ways that the environment affects our genes.  Instead of the usual argument over whether human behavior is the result of nature versus nurture, he shows how behavior is the result of the interaction of the two.

Dr. Tatiana’s Sex Advice to All Creation.  2002.  Olivia Judson.  This book is about the many, many variations in bizarre mating habits of animals.  She takes the approach of writing as a sex-columnist in response to questions from animals.  This makes the book interesting and funny to read, but be careful.  She is giving “advice” to the animals, NOT to the human readers.

The Botany of Desire:  A Plant’s –Eye View of the World.  2002.  Michael Pollan.  This book is mostly about the process of artificial selection of plants.  The author often takes the view that the plants have manipulated humans into growing and caring for them.  The book takes an interesting look at four very different plants:  apples, tulips, marijuana, and potatoes.

The Secret Life of Dust.  2001.  Hannah Holmes.  Like dust, this book is all over the place.  By studying dust, the author takes us through topics from the origin of the universe, to global climate to microscopic organisms.  Maybe your expectation for a book on dust is not very high, but this book should surprise you.

Wild Solutions:  How Biodiversity is Money in the Bank.  2001. Andrew Beattie & Paul R. Ehrlich.  In this book, two prominent ecologists explain how little of the earth’s biodiversity is understood.  Chapters explore lesser known examples of great biodiversity.  Most importantly, the authors point out the great value of biological diversity.

Parasite Rex:  Inside the bizarre world of nature’s most dangerous creatures.  2000.  Carl Zimmer.  According to Zimmer, parasites may outnumber free-living species 4 to 1.  In this book, he relates examples of parasites from Costa Rica to Sudan.  He explains how these creatures can change their host’s behavior and DNA.

Viruses, Plagues, and History. 2000 Michael B. A. Oldstone.  Smallpox, HIV, Ebola, Hanta virus…  This book talks about what viruses are and how they work.  The author also discusses how viruses have affected history and speculates on how present viruses may affect the future.

The Invisible Enemy:  A Natural History of Viruses. 2000 Dorothy Crawford.  Smallpox, HIV, Ebola, Hanta virus…  What, exactly, are viruses?  Where do they come from?  Why are they here?   How can we fight them?  This is a great little book about our most up to date understanding of viruses.  The author also discusses the link between viruses and cancer and briefly discusses using viruses for genetic engineering and disease treatment.

Promiscuity:  An Evolutionary History of Sperm Competition.  2000.  Tim Birkhead.  This is a fascinating book about the evolution of animal mating behaviors.  Relatively new DNA technologies have led to big changes in biologists understanding of mating patterns.  In this book, the author explains how these discoveries have changed our theories about mating behavior.  Along the way, he discusses bizarre examples such as fruit flies with the longest sperm in the world (58 mm or >2 inches); penis fencing among hermaphroditic slugs; and bedbugs that inseminate by injecting sperm directly through the wall of the female’s body.

A Fish Caught in Time:  The Search for the Coelacanth.  2000.  Samantha Weinberg.  This book was fun to read.  The author introduces us to the people that have discovered the coelacanth, a fish thought to have been long extinct.  She begins with the 1938 discovery by Marjorie Courtnay-Latimer of the East London museum in South Africa (brought to her by the captain of a fishing boat.)  Next comes the long search to find the second coelacanth and then to discover its natural habitat.  She explains the efforts that continue to this day to understand this important creature.  The book really reads like a science adventure novel.

Genome:  The Autobiography Of A Species In 23 Chapters.  1999.  Matt Ridley.  Ridley writes about the ramifications of our advancing knowledge of the human genome.  He devotes one chapter to each chromosome and uses one gene from that chromosome to explore a “theme of human nature.”  Themes include intelligence, conflict, sex, stress, memory and free will.

Fearsome Fauna:  A Field Guide to the Creatures that Live in You.  1999.  Roger M. Knutson.  This book is about the many kinds of parasites that can live in your body.  The book is fascinating to read in the same way that we are fascinated in watching science fiction movies like “Alien.”  The difference, of course, is that although these creatures may be alien to our bodies, they are NOT science fiction.  The author writes with a sense of humor and this book is a sequel to his previous book:  Furtive Fauna:  A Field Guide to the Creatures that live On You.

Rock of Ages.  1999.  Stephen Jay Gould. Have questions about how Science and Religion relate?  In this book, Gould outlines why there should be no conflict between the two fields of inquiry.  The book’s title comes from an old saying that illustrates Gould’s argument.  “Science gets the age of rocks, religion, the rock of ages.”  Gould is a paleontologist and is best known for his monthly essays published in the magazine, Natural History and as a proponent of the theory of punctuated equilibrium.

At the Water’s Edge:  Fish With Fingers, Whales With Legs, And How Life Came Ashore But Then Went Back To Sea.  1998.  Carl Zimmer.  This book deals with the subject of macro-evolution, or the long-term evolution of species and forms of species.  The author focuses on two dramatic transitions.  As suggested in the title, these are the transition from fish to land dwelling tetrapod and from a land mammal to whale.  The book includes many recent relevant discoveries and is detailed, but enjoyable to read.

The Clock of Ages : Why We Age-How We Age-Winding Back the Clock. 1997.  John J. Medina.  This book takes you on a tour (aided by many figures) of the anatomical and physiological systems and shows the effects of aging on each.  The author also discusses current theories of aging and recent research experiments investigating senescence and the possibility of  “turning back the clock.”  Along the way as a side note, the author describes particular details of aging of some famous people in history.

Full House. 1996  Stephen Jay Gould.  This book is probably unlike any you have read before.   Gould is a paleontologist and is best known for his monthly essays published in the magazine, Natural History and as a proponent of the theory of punctuated equilibrium.  In this book, he is teaching us how to interpret trends in complex systems.  Gould is fanatical about baseball and draws on examples such as the disappearance of 0.400 hitting in baseball to explain his ideas about progress and increasing complexity.

The Origins of Virtue:  Human Instincts and the Evolution of Cooperation.  1996.  Matt Ridley.  Are humans ultimately selfish or cooperative?  Is cooperative behavior actually selfish behavior?  Under what circumstances does natural selection favor helping other individuals?  These are some of the fundamental questions addressed by Ridley in this book.  Ridley examines what we have learned about the evolution of cooperation in other species and considers how this may have shaped our own evolution.

Broadsides from the Other Orders.  1993. Sue Hubbell.  The author of this book spent many years raising bees for honey and writing books in the Ozarks of Missouri.  In this book she looks at 13 major groups of insects and tells their story by telling about her own observations and by interviewing people that work with the insects.  You can’t help but find this book fascinating.

The Third Chimpanzee, 1992.  Jared Diamond.  Diamond is an amazing intellect with two careers.  The first is in physiology and the second is in ecology and evolution.  This book deals with many things, but is primarily about human evolution.  (I’ve used this in several years and it was always a favorite of students.)

The Selfish Gene.  1989.  Richard Dawkins.  This book is fascinating because it looks at evolution from a different angle, from the perspective of a gene.  In essence, Dawkins explains that organisms are vehicles that function to reproduce genes.  The book was originally written in 1976, but this new edition incorporates notes of clarification and answers to critics of the original.  This edition also includes two new chapters.  One is on the evolution of cooperation and the other introduces his more recent book, The Extended Phenotype.

The Panda’s Thumb, 1980.  Stephen Jay Gould.  This book is one of many collections of essays originally published in the magazine, Natural History, by another famous and sometimes controversial Harvard scientist.  Gould is a paleontologist and is best known as a proponent of the theory of punctuated equilibrium.  This collection of essays may get you started on reading more from Gould.

On Human Nature.  1978  Edward O. Wilson.  In this book, Wilson explores using an understanding of population and evolutionary biology to explain aspects of human sociology.  Chapters explore the role of evolution on aspects of aggression, sex, altruism and religion.  E. O. Wilson is an expert on ants and other social insects and has had important influences on scientific thinking about biogeography, biodiversity and environmental ethics.  His writings are interesting to read because his sense of intellectual curiosity is contagious.

Lives of a Cell, 1974.  Lewis Thomas.  This is a classic collection of essays explaining cell biology to non-biologists, among other topics.  If you have an interest in cell biology, organelles, etc., read this one.

The Edge of the Sea.  1955.  Rachel Carson.  Carson is best known for her classic, Silent Spring, which was a very influential book about the effects of pesticides in the environment.  In this book, she writes about the creatures that live at the edge of the sea.  If you are interested in marine biology, you should read this book